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Engine oil filtration

May 7th, 2018 | by Johndoo
Engine oil filtration

Used oils are the main part of the oil waste collected and accumulated in transport and industrial enterprises. Depending on the purpose, all used oils are conventionally divided into groups:
– MMO – motor scrap oil. These include diesel, aviation, automotive, and motor oils used in hydraulic systems and transmissions;
– MIO – industrial waste oil. This group includes transformer, hydraulic, compressor and turbine oils;
– CHO – mixtures of oil products used. This includes petroleum products that are collected during the cleaning of tanks and pipelines, as well as petroleum products removed from wastewater at treatment plants.
In accordance with the existing policies of the world’s leading states, waste products must be re-used as valuable material and technical resources. Therefore, all enterprises and organizations whose activities are in one way or another connected with the formation of used oils, at the legislative level, undertake to collect, maintain records, rationally use and hand over all waste oil products belonging to one of the groups listed above. The final destination of used oils are organizations and enterprises engaged in the recovery and production of petroleum products.
The situation with transformer and industrial oils is slightly simpler – they can be regenerated directly at the consumption sites. Spent engine oils should be delivered to oil depots.
All methods of processing or regeneration of used motor oils can be divided into four groups: physical, physicochemical, chemical and combined.
Physical methods include sedimentation, centrifugation, filtration, stripping of light ends and vacuum distillation. It is the latter method that is most effective, since it allows to obtain an oil with minimum ash content, coke intensity, good color indexes and low content of asphalt-resinous substances.
Coalulation, contact cleaning with bleaching clays and adsorbents, as well as purification with propane and phenol belong to the most frequently used physicochemical methods of processing motor oils.
Chemical methods are sulfuric and alkaline cleaning. Sulfuric acid is a fairly active substance in the context of exposure to most contaminants and oxidation products of waste oil. But this method is seriously limited by the difficulty of recycling the by-product – acid sludge. In this regard, sulfuric acid purification is often replaced by hydrogenation processes.
Combined ways to restore the properties of used oils are used where there is a strong variety of contamination products.
Oil filtration with the help of factory technologies is difficult due to the presence of special additives. Part of the additives that have passed into insoluble state, as well as part of the additives absorbed on the contamination products, can be removed by means of thawing or filtration processes using a diluent and a coagulant. Theoretically, a small percentage of additives can be stored in the oil or the product of its recycling. But the situation is complicated by the need to collect and process motor oils strictly according to grades and using individual technology for each individual variety. In mass production, it is quite difficult to realize, so in practice they follow a different path. First, all additives are removed during processing, including residues of their active part.
The total loss of additives when removed from motor oils is usually not more than 3% of the dehydrated raw materials. With a competent approach, in the case of a heavily soiled initial oil, up to 70% of the completely reduced product can be obtained.

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